shows the following declaration, which uses clear to prevent H2 elements from flowing past floated elements to the left side:

H2 {clear: left;}
Figure 7-74

Figure 7-74. Clear to the left

However, this will allow floated elements to appear on the right side of H2 elements, as shown in Figure 7-75.

Figure 7-75

Figure 7-75. Clear to the left, but not the right

Thursday 19th of January 2017 05:51:05 PM MySQL Stored Procedures: Part 1
August 9, 2005

What are Stored Procedures

MySQL 5.0 finally introduces functionality for Stored Procedures. So what exactly are stored procedures? That is the kind of question that gets database professionals who use other DBMS's raising their eyebrows. Stored procedures have been integral to Oracle, PostgreSQL, DB-2, MS-SQL server and others for years, and it has long been a sore point that MySQL has not had them. But there is no snobbery here - if you are a MySQL newbie, or have been using MySQL for years and want to find out what all the fuss is about, read on. If it is your eyebrows that are raised, and you just want to know how MySQL implements them, you will be relieved to know MySQL stored procedures are very similar to the DB2 implementation, as both are based on the SQL:2003 standard.

A stored procedure is simply a procedure that is stored on the database server. MySQL developers have to date unthinkingly written and stored their procedures on the application (or web) server, mainly because there hasn't been an option. That has been limiting. Some have claimed that there are two schools of thought - one claiming that logic should be in the application, the other saying it should reside in the database. However, most professionals would not bind themselves to one or other viewpoint at all times. As always, there are times when doing either makes sense. Unfortunately, some of the staunchest adherents of the in the application school are only there because until now they have had no choice, and it is what they are used to doing. So why would we want to place logic on the database server?

Why use stored procedures?

A simple example

A stored procedure is simply some SQL statements. Almost any valid SQL can go inside a stored procedure, with a few exceptions, which we will look at, at a later date. Let's set up a basic stored procedure first. This one will simply say 'Hello' in the Xhosa language - Molo.

mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE molo() SELECT 'Molo';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

It is as simple as that. And to call it:

mysql> CALL molo()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Molo: Molo
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Hardly useful, but the basics are there. CREATE PROCEDURE sp_name() will define the procedure, and CALL sp_name() will call the procedure.

Parameters

The real benefit of a stored procedure is of course when you can pass values to it, as well as receive values back. The concept of parameters should be familiar to anyone who has had experience with any procedural programming experience.

There are three types of parameter:

Mastery of stored procedures does require knowledge of session variables. Most of you probably know how to use session variables already, but if not, the concept is simple. You can assign a value to a variable, and retrieve it later. Here is an example, setting the variable x to the Xhosa word for hello to a group of people.

mysql> SET @x='Molweni';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT @x\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
@x: Molweni
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

An IN example

Here is an example of a stored procedure demonstrating the use of an IN parameter. Since IN is the default, there is no need to specify the parameter as such.

mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE sp_in(p VARCHAR(10)) SET @x = P;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp_in('Molo');
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT @x\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
@x: Molo
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The session variable @x is set inside of the procedure, based upon the parameter P, which is passed to the procedure, and remains unchanged.

An OUT example

mysql> SET @x='Molweni';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE sp_out(OUT p VARCHAR(10)) SET P='molo';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp_out(@x);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT @x\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
@x: molo
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

We reset @x just to make sure the final result is not a legacy of the previous procedure. This time, the parameter P is changed inside of the procedure, while the session variable is passed to the procedure, ready to receive the result.

An INOUT example

mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE sp_inout(INOUT P INT) SET @x=P*2;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> CALL sp_inout(2);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT @x\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
@x: 4
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Here, a parameter is passed to the procedure, used in the calculation, and the results are made available to the session variable @x.

Figure 7-65

Figure 7-65. Floating images with margins

(To resurrect the old paper-and-plastic analogy, the plastic margins around an image never overlap the plastic surrounding other elements.)

If you do float a text element, realize that unless you declare a width for that element, the CSS specification says that its width will tend toward zero. Thus, a (Uniform Resource Locator).  A URL specifies a  schemethat tells the browser how to handle the file to be received from the server,the server name, and the path and filenameof the file on the server.  Common URL schemes include: